- Abrupt loss of peripheral vision
- In some cases loss of central vision
- Permanent sectoral visual field defect.
- Pressure on vein by on athero sclerotic retinal artery
- Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common predisposing factors
- Hyper viscosity of blood as inpolycythemia, hyperlipidemia, macroglobulinemia, leukemia, multiple myeloma, Cryoglobulinemia.
- Periphlebitis Retinae – associated with sarcoidosis, syphilis, SLE.
- Raised Intraocular pressure
- Local causes : Orbital Cellulitis, orbital tumors, facial erysipelas,Cavernous sinus thrombosis