Updated: Sep 8
What is Parafoveal Telangiectasia?
Parafoveal telangiectasia, also known as idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia type 2 or Macular Telangiectasia Type 2, is an uncommon eye disease that affects the blood vessels of the macula–the central part responsible for sharp, detailed vision–as a progressive and irreversible condition.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia is more common in those over 40 years of age and more prevalent among women than men. Though the exact cause remains unknown, it’s believed to be caused by disruptions to blood flow and oxygen supply to the retina.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia may present with blurred vision, difficulty reading faces and face recognition, visual hallucinations or “phantom images,” for some individuals.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia is currently incurable, but treatments like intravitreal injections and laser therapy can be used to alleviate symptoms and slow down its progression. To identify any visual changes and determine the most suitable treatment option, patients should receive regular eye exams with their vision monitored to detect any changes and determine the most suitable course of action.
What is Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 2?
Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 2 (also referred to as Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 and Idiopathic Jxtafoveal Telangiectasis Type 2) is a rare condition that affects the blood vessels of the macula, or central part of the retina. This condition is most common among those over 40 and typically diagnosed as part of general aging.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia type 2, while its cause remains unknown, is thought to be due to both genetic and environmental factors. It has been linked to mutations in the CA4 gene that regulates blood flow; this has also been associated with parafoveal telangiectasia type 2.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia type 2, which may manifest in various ways, usually causes blurry or distorted vision and difficulty reading faces. It may also result in a gradual loss or reduction of central vision. Some individuals may even experience visual hallucinations and “phantom images”.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 2 is currently incurable; however, intravitreal injections or photodynamic therapy can be used to treat symptoms and slow down its progression. Patients with parafoveal telangiectasia type 2 should receive regular eye exams to detect any visual changes and determine the most suitable treatment options.
What are the Symptoms of Prarafoveal Telangiectasia?
Parafoveal Telangiectasia symptoms vary depending on the severity, but typically include:
Vision blurred or distorted
Difficulty recognizing faces or reading them
Gradual loss in central vision with time
Color vision abnormalities
Sensitivity to bright light or glare
Visual hallucinations and “phantom images”
Vision hallucinations or ghost images?
Blind spots and dark spots in the vision field
At the early stages of diabetes, some people do not experience symptoms. However, routine eye exams may detect it early on; symptoms become more evident as time goes on and can interfere with everyday tasks like reading, driving, using a mobile device or computer.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia symptoms may be due to other eye conditions as well. To accurately diagnose this condition, an optometrist or ophthalmologist must perform a comprehensive eye exam.
What are the Stages of Parafoveal Telangiectasia?
Parafoveal Telangiectasia type 2 may be divided into three stages depending on its severity and extent.
Stage 1: At this stage, there are no visible changes to the retina. People with parafoveal Telangiectasia type 2 may not feel any symptoms and this condition is typically detected through routine eye exams.
Stage 2: At this stage, there may be visible dilation or abnormal branching of the retina’s blood vessels. Leakage of fluids or blood from these blood vessels can lead to swelling and edema around the macula, leading to blurred vision, difficulty reading faces or recognizing them, as well as other visual symptoms.
Stage 3: At this stage, retinal changes continue to progress with the appearance of small holes or cavities in the macula. This can result in loss of central vision, difficulty reading or driving, and facial recognition problems.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 2 may not progress through all three stages at once; some individuals may experience a slower progression. Regular eye exams and monitoring are essential to detect vision changes and determine the most suitable course of treatment.
What are the Causes of Parafoveal Telangiectasia?
Research continues to elucidate the cause of parafoveal telangiectasia, suggesting there could be both genetic and environmental elements at work.
Genetics: Studies have revealed that Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 2 is often caused by mutations in the CA4 gene, an enzyme which regulates blood flow to the retina and may lead to abnormal blood vessel formation or function.
Environment: Studies have suggested that environmental factors, such as smoking and exposure to chemicals, may also have an impact.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia can be caused by various idiopathic conditions.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia, though rare, does occur occasionally. People with a family history or other risk factors for the disorder may have an increased likelihood of developing it; however, this is not always the case. To detect vision changes and determine the most suitable treatment plan, those at greater risk should receive regular eye examinations and monitoring to detect them early.
What is Idiopathic Parafoveal Telangiectasia?
Idiopathic Parafoveal Telangiectasia (IPT) is an unrelated form of Parafoveal Telangiectasia that has no known medical cause. IPT may also be referred to as Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 1.
IPT (irreversible proliferative hyperplasia) is an uncommon disorder that affects the blood vessels of the macula (central part of the retina). It typically affects those over 40 years old and causes blurry or distorted vision as well as difficulty reading faces or recognizing people. Some IPT patients may experience visual hallucinations and “phantom” images in rare cases.
Though the exact cause of IPT remains uncertain, researchers believe it to be a result of both genetic and environmental influences. Unlike Parafoveal Telangiectasia Type 2, however, this condition isn’t linked to any particular genetic mutation.
Unfortunately, there is currently no cure for IPT. However, treatments like intravitreal injections or photodynamic therapy can help treat symptoms and slow down its progression. It is recommended that those with IPT receive regular eye exams to detect visual changes and determine the most suitable treatment option.
What does Perifoveal mean?
The area surrounding the fovea, known as perifoveal, provides sharp and detailed vision. Measuring 500-1500 microns across, this central region of the retina contains abundant blood vessels and photoreceptor cells for enhanced vision.
Our visual system is highly dependent on the perifoveal region. This region processes fine details, color vision and visual acuity – essential for reading faces, recognizing objects, and performing other visual tasks.
Vision loss or distortion can be caused by conditions in the perifoveal region. To detect changes and determine the best course of action, have regular eye exams and monitor your vision closely.
What is Parafoveal Area?
Parafoveal is a small area in the middle of the retina just outside the fovea, responsible for sharp and detailed vision. At 500-1500 microns wide, this region contains abundant photoreceptor cells as well as blood vessels.
Parafoveal is an area that plays a significant role in our visual system, responsible for fine details, color vision and visual acuity. It helps us read faces, recognize faces and perform other visually demanding tasks.
Parafoveal Telangiectasia is a condition in which blood vessels in the parafoveal region become affected, leading to abnormal branching and dilation of vessels as well as other retinal changes. This may cause blurry or distorted vision as well as other visual symptoms. To detect changes and determine an appropriate course of action for patients suffering from Parafoveal Telangiectasia, they should have regular eye exams with monitoring their vision.