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  • Abrupt loss of peripheral vision

  • In some cases loss of central vision

  • Permanent sectoral visual field defect.

  • Pressure on vein by on athero sclerotic retinal artery

  • Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common predisposing factors

  • Hyper viscosity of blood as inpolycythemia, hyperlipidemia, macroglobulinemia, leukemia, multiple myeloma, Cryoglobulinemia.

  • Periphlebitis Retinae – associated with sarcoidosis, syphilis, SLE.

  • Raised Intraocular pressure

  • Local causes : Orbital Cellulitis, orbital tumors, facial erysipelas,Cavernous sinus thrombosis

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